To overcome such problems, a separation distance between the odour source and residential areas is used, to reduce the odour annoyance to a certain level. In the field of livestock farming two regulatory approaches are used. The first one is a an empirical assessment of a separation distance between residential houses and livestock buildings, which is a common objective of various guidelines of several countries (eg Austria (Schauberger et al., 1997; Schauberger and Piringer, 1997a and 1997b), The Netherlands (Ministrie van Landbouw, 1991), Germany (VDI 3471,1986; VDI 3472, 1986; VDI 3473, 1994), USA (Heber, 1997 and 1998) and Switzerland (Richner and Schmidlin, 1995)). In most cases the structure of the guide lines is very similar. First of all the odour source is assessed by the number of animals and additionally by some parameters which influence the odour release. On the basis of the odour source, the separation distance is calculated by using an empirical function, in many cases a power function (Piringer and Schauberger, 1999). In the last step this separation distance is modified by a reduction factor to adapt the separation distance to various land use categories, which are distinguished by different levels of claims for exemption from odour sensation.
The second regulatory approach are model
calculations of the separation distance using dispersion models. Following
information has to be available: odour release (Martinec et al., 1998; Schauberger
et al., 1999), a dispersion model (eg the normative Gauss model used in
Austria, Kolb, 1981), calculation of the instantaneous odour concentration
(Schauberger et al., 2000b) and validation of the instantaneous odour concentration
taking into account the FIDO factors of odour sensation (frequency, intensity,
duration and offensiveness) and reasonableness.
Empirical Guide Lines
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