UV Index Monitoring in Europe
Schmalwieser A.W., Gröbner J., Blumthaler M., Klotz B., De Backer H, Bolsée D, Werner R, Tomsic D, Metelka L, Eriksen P, Jepsen N, Aun M, Heikkilä A, Duprat T, Sandmann H, Weiss T, Bais A, Toth Z, Siani AM, Vaccaro L, Diémoz H, Grifoni D, Zipoli G, Lorenzetto G, Petkov BH, di Sarra AG, Massen F, Yousif C, Aculinin AA, den Outer P, Svendby T, Dahlback A, Johnsen B, Biszczuk-Jakubowska J, Krzyscin J, Henriques D, Chubarova N, Kolarž P, Mijatovic Z, Groselj D, Pribullova A, Gonzales JRM, Bilbao J, Guerrero JMV, Serrano A, Andersson S, Vuilleumier L, Webb A, O'Hagan J.
UV Index Monitoring in Europe
Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2017 Sep 13;16(9):1349-1370. doi: 10.1039/c7pp00178a.


A. W. Schmalwieser and G. Schauberger, A monitoring network for erythemally-effective solar ultraviolet radiation in Austria: determination of the measuring sites and visualisation of the spatial distribution, Theor. Appl. Climatol., 2001, 69, 221–229.

M. Blumthaler, Quality assurance and quality control methodologies within the Austrian UV monitoring network, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 2004, 111, 359–362.

B. Schallhart, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder and J. Verdebout, A method to generate near real time UV-Index maps of Austria, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 7483–7491.

H. E. Rieder, F. Holawe, S. Simic, M. Blumthaler, J. W. Krzyscin, J. E. Wagner, A. W. Schmalwieser and P. Weihs, Reconstruction of erythemal UV-doses for two stations in Austria: a comparison between alpine and urban regions, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 6309–6323.


H. de Backer, Time series of daily erythemal UV doses at Uccle, Belgium, Int. J. of Remote Sens., 2009, 30, 4145– 4151.

P. Pandey, D. Gillotay and C. Depiesse, Climatology of ultra violet (UV) irradiance at the surface of the earth as measured by the Belgian UV radiation monitoring network, Proceedings of Living Planet Symposium 2016, 9–13 May 2016 Prague, Czech Republic, ESA SPVolume SP-740, European Space Agency, 2016.


R. Werner, B. Petkov, D. Valev, A. Atanassov, V. Guineva and A. Kirillov, Ozone Determination by GUV 2511 Ultraviolet Irradiation Measurements at Stara Zagora, Sun Geosphere, 2017, 12, 133–138.

Czech Republic

Cížková, K., Láska, K., Metelka, L., and Stanek, M. Reconstruction and analysis of erythemal UV radiation time series from Hradec Králové (Czech Republic) over the past 50 years. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2018, 18, 1805–1818.


H. C. Wulf and P. Eriksen, UV index and its implications, Ugeskr. Laeg., 2010, 72, 1277–1279.


K. Leszczynski, K. T. Jokela, R. Visuri and L. Ylianttila, Calibration of the broadband radiometers of the Finnish Solar UV monitoring network, Metrologia, 1995, 32, 701– 704.


M. Steinmetz, Continuous solar UV monitoring in Germany, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 1997, 41, 181–187.

H. Sandmann and C. Stick, Spectral and Spatial UV Sky Radiance Measurements at a Seaside Resort Under Clear Sky and Slightly Overcast Conditions, Photochem. Photobiol., 2014, 90, 225–232.

C. Stick, K. Krüger, N. Schade, H. Sandmann and A. Macke, Episode of unusual high solar ultraviolet radiation over central Europe due to dynamical reduced total ozone in May 2005, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2006, 6, 1771–1776.


A. Kazantzidis, A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, K. Garane, M. Zempila, C. Meleti and C. Zerefos, Quality assurance of the Greek UV Network: Preliminary results from the pilot phase operation, Proc. SPIE, 2006, 6362, 636229.


Z. Tóth, High resolution solar spectrophotometry and narrow spectral range solar radiation measurements at the Hungarian Meteorological Service, Idojaras, 2013, 117, 403–433.


H. Diémoz, L. Egli, J. Gröbner and A. M. Siani, Solar ultraviolet measurements in Aosta (Italy): an analysis of shortand middle-term spectral variability, Radiat. Proces. Atmos. Ocean, 2013, 1531, 856–859.

G. R. Casale, A. M. Siani, H. Diémoz, G. Agnesod, A. V. Parisi and A. Colosimo, Extreme UV index and solar exposures at Plateau Rosŕ (3500 m a.s.l.) in Valle d’Aosta Region, Italy, Sci. Total Environ., 2015, 512–513, 622–630.

H. Diémoz and B. Mayer, UV radiation in a mountaineous terrain: comparison of accurate 3D and fast 1D calculations in terms of UV index, Presented in part at One Century of UV Radiation Research, Davos, Switzerland, September, 2007.

B. Petkov, V. Vitale, C. Tomasi, U. Bonafé, S. Scaglione, D. Flori, R. Santaguida, M. Gausa, G. Hansen and T. Colombo, Narrowband filter radiometer for groundbased measurements of global ultraviolet solar irradiance and total ozone, Appl. Opt., 2006, 45, 4383–4395.

B. Petkov, V. Vitale, C. Tomasi, M. Mazzola, C. Lanconelli, A. Lupi and M. Busetto, Variations in total ozone column and biologically effective solar UV exposure doses in Bologna, Italy during the period 2005–2010, Int. J. Biometeorol., 2014, 58, 31–39.

M. Morabito, D. Grifoni, A. Crisci, L. Fibbi, S. Orlandini, G. F. Gensini and G. Zipoli, Might outdoor heat stress be considered a proxy for the unperceivable effect of the ultraviolet-induced risk of erythema in Florence?, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 2014, 130, 338–348.

A. M. Siani, N. J. Muthama, E. Piervitali and S. Palmieri, Detailed analysis of solar ultraviolet radiation: a preliminary investigation on data collected at Rome (‘La Sapienza’ University), Sci. Total Environ., 1995, 171, 143– 150.

G. R. Casale, D. Meloni, S. Miano, S. Palmieri, A. M. Siani and F. Cappellani, Solar UV-B irradiance and total ozone in Italy: Fluctuations and trends, J. Geophys. Res., 2000, 105, 4895–4901.

I. Ialongo, G. R. Casale and A. M. Siani, Comparison of total ozone and erythemal UV data from OMI with ground-based measurements at Rome station, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 3283–3289.

A. M. Siani, S. Modesti, G. R. Casale, H. Diemoz and A. Colosimo, Biologically effective surface UV climatology at Rome and Aosta, Italy, AIP Conf. Proc., 2013, 1531, 903– 906.

D. Meloni, A. di Sarra, J. R. Herman, F. Monteleone and S. Piacentino, Comparison of ground-based and TOMS erythemal UV doses at the island of Lampedusa in the period 1998–2003: Role of tropospheric aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 2005, 110, D01202.

A. di Sarra, D. Fuŕ, M. Cacciani, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, D. Meloni, F. Monteleone, S. Piacentino and D. Sferlazzo Determination of ultraviolet cosine corrected irradiances and aerosol optical thickness by combined measurements with a Brewer spectrophotometer and a MultiFilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer, Appl. Opt., 2008, 47, 6142–6150.

D. Mateos, A. di Sarra, D. Meloni, C. Di Biagio and D. M. Sferlazzo, Experimental determination of cloud influence on the spectral UV radiation and implications for biological effects, J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 2011, 73, 1739–1746.

A. di Sarra, M. Cacciani, P. Chamard, C. Cornwall, J. J. DeLuisi, T. Di Iorio, P. Disterhoft, G. Fiocco, D. Fuŕ and F. Monteleone, Effects of desert dust and ozone on the ultraviolet irradiance at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa during PAUR II, J. Geophys. Res., 2002, 107(D18), 8135.


J. Bilbao, R. Román, C. Yousif, D. Mateos and A. de Miguel, Total Ozone Column, Water Vapour and Aerosol Effects on Erythemal and Global Solar Irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta, Atmos. Environ. J., 2014, 99, 508–518.

J. Bilbao, D. Mateos, C. Yousif, R. Roman and A. De Miguel, Influence of Cloudiness on Erythermal Solar Irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta: Two Case Studies, J. Sol. Energy, 2016, 136, 475–486.

The Netherlands

P. N. den Outer, H. Slaper and R. Tax, UV radiation in the Netherlands: assessing long-term variability and trends in relation to ozone and clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 2005, 110(D2), D02203.


O. Mikkelborg, G. Saxebol and B. Johnsen, Ultraviolet Monitoring in Norway on the WEB, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 2000, 91, 165–167.

B. Johnsen, L.-T. Nilsen, A. Dahlback, K. Edvardsen and C. L. Myhre, The Norwegian UV-monitoring network: QC and results for the period 1996–2011, AIP Conf. Proc., 2013, 1531, 784–787.


J. W. Krzyscin, P. S. Sobolewski, J. Jaroslawski, J. Podgorski and B. Rajewska-Wiech, Erythemal UV observations at Belsk, Poland, in the period 1976-2008: Data homogenization, climatology, and trends, Acta Geophys., 2012, 59, 155–182.

J. W. Krzyscin, J. Narbutt, A. Lesiak, J. Jaroslawski, P. S. Sobolewski, B. Rajewska-Wiech, A. Szkop, J. Wink and A. Czerwinska, Perspectives of the antipsoriatic heliotherapy in Poland, J. Photochem. Photobiol., B, 2014, 140, 111–119.


D. Henriques, Programa operacional de previsao do indice UV em Portugal, Radiacao Solar, 1999, 1, 47–60.


N. Chubarova, Monitoring of Biologically Active UV Radiation in the Moscow Region, Izvestiya, Atmos. Oceanic Phys., 2002, 38, 312–322.

E. Yu Zhdanova, N. Ye Chubarova and M. Blumthaler, Biologically active UV-radiation and UV-resources in Moscow (1999–2013), Geogr., Environ., Sustainable., 2014, 2, 71–85.


Z. Mijatovic, S. Milicevic, D. V. Kapor, D. T. Mihailovic, I. Arsenic and Z. Podrascanin, Chapter 11: Solar UV Radiation: Monitoring and a new approach in modelling - pioneering work in Serbia, in Advances in Environmental Modeling and Measurements, ed. D. T. Mihailovic and B. Lalic, Nova Science Publisher, New York, 2010, pp. 113–119.


E. Závodská, Direct ultraviolet solar radiation at Skalnate Pleso, Meteorol. Zpr., 1972, 1, 3–5.


A. Pribullova and M. Chmelik, Typical distribution of the solar erythemal UV radiation over Slovakia, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 5393–5401.


A. Serrano, M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo and V. L. Mateos, Daily and annual variations of erythemal ultraviolet radiation in Southwestern Spain, Ann. Geophys., 2006, 24, 427– 441.

M. Antón, A. Serrano, M. L. Cancillo and J. A. Garcia, Experimental and forecasted values of the ultraviolet index in southwestern Spain, J. Geophys. Res., 2009, 114, D5.

M. Antón, A. Serrano, M. L. Cancillo and J. M. Vilaplana, Quality assurance of broadband erythemal radiometers at the Extremadura UV Monitoring Network (Southwestern Spain), Atmos. Res., 2011, 100, 83–92.

A. Miguel, J. Bilbao, R. Roman and D. Mateos, Measurements and attenuation of erythemal radiation in Central Spain, Int. J. Climatol., 2012, 32, 929–940.

P. Salvador, J. Bilbao, A. De Miguel and A. Pérez-Burgos, UV-B and UVI measured and calculated in Valladolid, Spain, UV News-Letter, 2006, (8), 25–28.


D. Vernez, A. Milon, L. Vuilleumier, J.-L. Bulliard, A. Koechlin, M. Boniol and J. F. Doré, A general model to predict individual exposure to solar UV by using ambient irradiance data, J. Exposure Anal. Environ. Epidemiol., 2015, 25, 113–118.


A. R. D. Smedley, J. S. Rimmer, D. Moore, R. Toumi and A. R. Webb, Total ozone and surface UV trends in the United Kingdom: 1979–2008, Int. J. Climatol., 2012, 32, 338–346


Broadband instruments

A. Webb, J. Gröbner and M. Blumthaler, A practical guide to operating broadband instruments measuring erythemally weigthed irradiance, COST Office, Brussels, Belgium, 2006.

G. Hülsen, J. Gröbner, A. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Disterhoft, B. Johnsen, K. O. Lantz, C. Meleti, J. Schreder, J. M. Vilaplana Guerrero and L. Ylianttila, Intercomparison of erythemal broadband radiometers calibrated by seven UV calibration facilities in Europe and the USA, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 2008, 8, 4865–4875.

A. Bais, C. Topaloglou, S. Kazadtzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Schmalwieser, D. Henriques and M. Janouch, Report of the LAP/COST/WMO intercomparison of erythemal radiometers, WMO Rep. 141, WMO-GAW, Geneva, Switzerland, 2000.

G. Hülsen and J. Gröbner, Characterization and calibration of ultraviolet broadband radiometers measuring erythemally weighted irradiance, Appl. Opt., 2007, 46, 5877–5886.

J. M. Vilaplana, A. Serrano, M. Antón, M. L. Cancillo, M. Parias, J. Gröbner, G. Hülsen, G. Zablocky, A. Díaz and B. A. de la Moren, Report of the El Arenosillo/INTA-COST calibration an intercomparison campaign of UVER broadband radiometers, COST Office, Brussels, Belgium, 2009

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, A. Bais and C. Topaloglou, Effect of ambient temperature on Robertson-Berger type erythemal dosimeters, Appl. Opt., 2002, 41, 4273–4277.

M. Huber, M. Blumthaler and J. Schreder, Solar UV measurements with Robertson-Berger type instruments: influence of the detector’s internal humidity status, Agric. For. Meteorol., 2003, 120, 39–43.

WMO/GAW, Instruments to measure erythemally weighted solar irradiance. Part 2: Broadband Instruments Measuring Erythemally Weighted Solar Irradiance, WMO/ GAW No. 164, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.

K. Leszczynski, K. Jokela, L. Ylianttila, R. Visuri and M. Blumthaler, Erythemally weighted radiometers in solar UV monitoring: results from WMO/STUK intercomparison, Photochem. Photobiol., 1998, 67, 212–221.

J. Gröbner, G. Hülsen, L. Vuilleumier, M. Blumthaler, J. M. Vilaplana, D. Walker and J. E. Gill, Report of the PMOD/WRC-COST Calibration and Intercomparison of erthemal radiometers, COST office Brussels, Belgium, 2009.

M. de Paula Correa, S. Godin-Beekmann, M. Haeffelin, C. Brogniez, F. Verschaeve, P. Saiag, A. Pazmino and E. Mahe, Comparison between UV index measurements performed by research-grade and consumer-products instruments, Photochem. Photobiol. Sci., 2010, 9, 459–463.


A. W. Brewer, A replacement for the Dobson spectrophotometer?, Pure Appl. Geophys., 1973, 106–108, 919–927.

A. W. Brewer and J. B. Kerr, Total ozone measurements in cloudy weather, Pure Appl. Geophys., 1973, 106–108, 928– 937.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy and J. B. Kerr, Nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere, Nature, 1973, 246, 129–133.

J. G. Schreder, M. Blumthaler and M. Huber, Design of an input optic for solar UV-measurements, in Photochemistry and Photobiology Virtual conference: Protection against the hazards of UVR, 1998. http://www.photobiology.com/ UVR98/schreder/ (accessed July 2017).

J. Gröbner, Characterisation of Spectrophotometers used for spectral solar ultraviolet radiation measurments, Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 2001, 97, 415–418.

J. Gröbner, J. Schreder, S. Kazadzis, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb and D. Rembges, Traveling reference spectroradiometer for routine quality assurance of spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance measurements, Appl. Opt., 2005, 44, 5321–5331.

G. Hülsen, J. Gröbner, S. Nevas, P. Sperfeld, L. Egli, G. Porrovecchio and M. Smid, Traceability of solar UV measurements using the QASUME reference spectroradiometer, Appl. Opt., 2016, 55, 7265–7275.

Multichannel/Filter Radiometer

WMO/GAW, Instruments to Measure Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Part 3: Multi-channel filter instruments, GAW report no. 190, WMO/TD-No. 1537, WMO, Geneve, Switzerland, 2010.

A. Dahlback, Measurements of biologically effective UV doses, total ozone abundances, and cloud effects with multichannel, moderate bandwidth filter instruments, Appl. Opt., 1996, 35, 6514–6521.

B. Petkov, V. Vitale, C. Tomasi, U. Bonafč, S. Scaglione, D. Flori, R. Santaguida, M. Gausa, G. Hansen and T. Colombo, Narrow-band filter radiometer for groundbased measurements of global UV solar irradiance and total ozone, Appl. Opt., 2006, 45, 4383–4395.

D. S. Bigelow and J. R. Slusser, Establishing the stability of multifilter UV rotating shadow-band radiometers, J. Geophys. Res., 2000, 105, 4833–4840.

B. A. K. Hřiskar, R. Haugen, T. Danielsen, A. Kylling, K. Edvardsen, A. Dahlback, B. Johnsen, M. Blumthaler and J. Schreder, Multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instrument for measurement of the ozone-column amount, cloud transmittance, and ultraviolet dose rates, Appl. Opt., 2003, 42, 3472–3479.

G. Bernhard, C. R. Booth and J. C. Ehramjian, Real-time ultraviolet and column ozone from multichannel ultraviolet radiometers deployed in the National Science Foundation’s ultraviolet monitoring network, Opt. Eng., 2005, 44, 1–12

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser and J. Davis, Intercomparison of global UV index from multiband filter radiometers: Harmonization of global UVI and spectral irradiance, Technical Report 179, WMO/TD-No. 1454, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2008.

B. Johnsen, L.-T. Nilsen, A. Dahlback, K. Edvardsen and C. L. Myhre, The Norwegian UV-monitoring network: QC and results for the period 1996–2011, AIP Conf. Proc., 2013, 1531, 784–787.

A. Piedhierro, M. L. Cancillo, A. Serrano, M. Antón and J. M. Vilaplana, Global irradiance calibration of multifilter UV radiometers, J. Geophy. Res., 2016, 121, 427–438.

B. Johnsen, B. Kjeldstad, T. N. Aalerud, L. T. Nilsen, J. Schreder, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, C. Topaloglou, O. Meinander, A. Bagheri, J. R. Slusser and J. Davis, Intercomparison and harmonization of UV index measurements from multiband filter radiometers (2008), J. Geophys Res., 2008, 113, D15206, DOI: 10.1029/ 2007JD009731